DSV CMC Home Page

List of references to research reports on CMC (Computer Mediated Communication)

produced at the

Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University and KTH

by the research group on CMC (Computer Mediated Communication).

Last update: 10 January, 2006 by Jacob Palme E-mail: jpalme@dsv.su.se. at the Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University/KTH

This list is sorted in reverse chronological order,
i.e. beginning with the most recent report.

The indicated number of pages for documents below is only approximate.

Documents 2005

Using Web Portals for Medical Information Mediation

By: Andrea Andrenucci
In: Licentiate thesis at Stockholm University
Abstract: The World Wide Web has become, since its creation, one of most popular tools for accessing and distributing medical information. In this research we evaluate the acceptance of online information, graphical user interfaces (GUIs) and personalized search services on medical information portals. We also discuss which QA (Question Answering) techniques better fit medical systems. The purpose of this thesis is to provide indications about how users search for health-related information and guidelines about how medical portals should be implemented to fit users' needs.

The results are based on a literary review of the main QA approaches and on the evaluation of a prototype that tailors the retrieval of documents from the Web4health portal to user background data. The evaluation is conducted through a user empirical study based on user observation and in-depth interviews. This study is, to our knowledge, the first observational study carried out to investigate the retrieval strategies of people searching for health information on a medical portal where different techniques for personalized search were implemented.

The results of this thesis are, to our knowledge, the first guidelines that cover both search services and GUI on medical portals. The guidelines are aimed to work as a checklist for developers involved in the implementation of medical portals on the Web.

An Evaluation of Web4Health – Patients and Racket-hall Visitors’ Use of a Website on Mental Health

By: Minna Forsell

In: Web4Health deliverables.

Download: http://web4health.info/documentation/D-7-3-a-evaluation.pdf

Abstract: The purpose of this explorative study was to find out how Swedish users responded to Web4Health, a web-site about mental health, funded by the European Union. Twelve group-therapy patients and ten racket-hall visitors have tried the site by asking it a question about a psychological problem; thereafter, they have been interviewed. Subjects found the use of the web-site a valuable experience, and the interest in it was high. More than anything, the site stimulated the subjects’ thinking about their own situation. This was not only caused by the useful information that they got; equally important was the information that they rejected. We have borrowed a term from computer game developers, and called this "the cocktail party host effect": i. e. the provocation caused by information that did not fit the user’s needs gave rise to new thoughts and stimulated the subject to get more engaged in his or her problem.

Automated Question Answering: Review of the Main Approaches

By: Andrea Andrenucci and Eriks Sneiders
In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Information Technology and Applications (ICITA'05), July 4-7, Sydney, Australia, IEEE, Vol. 1, pp.514-519
Download: http://www.dsv.su.se/~eriks/Andrenucci-Sneiders-2005.pdf
Download: Available at IEEE's online DB
Download: ACM guide

Communication on Learning Obstacles, Setbacks and Incentives in a Virtual Health-community on Overweight

By: Åsa Smedberg
Proceedings of The International Conference on Advanced Information and Telemedicine Technologies for Health, Minsk, Belarus, November 8-10 2005

Double-loop Learning Conversations in an Online Community on Overweight

By: Åsa Smedberg
In: Proceedings of IADIS International Conference: Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age (CELDA 2005), Porto, Portugal, December 14-16 2005

Managing a web site in multiple languages

In: Terena Networking Conference, June 2005
By: Jacob Palme
Latest revised version

Multi-lingual content management

In: AITTH'2005 conference, Minsk, November 2005.
By: Jacob Palme

The Difficult Art of Virtual Work – About introducing on-line group work for student teachers

In: EDEN Fifth Open Classroom Conference, 5-7 October 2005, Poitiers.

By: Eva Fåhræus and Sirkku Männikkö

Abstract: Several recent surveys indicate that student teachers are poorly equipped when it comes to ICT use in general and the pedagogical use of ICT in particular. The two-year research project within the Stockholm Institute of Education has investigated how students in the teacher education programme develop their professionalism, and how the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the educational setting can have bearing to this development. This paper analyses the ways the students have been working in small groups. Our findings indicate that the oral tradition in teacher education is strong and that more rigorous and systematic methods should be applied in order to establish and evolve learning practices that make use of ICT in the way that is relevant in the new Knowledge Society.

Linguistic standardization on the Internet

By: Daniel Pargman and Jacob Palme:
In: C. Ess and F. Sudweeks (eds.), Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Cultural Attitudes Towards Technology and Communication (CATaC'98), Karlstad, June 27 – July 1 2004.

Documents 2004

Statistics of the Web4Health Web Site; Size; No. of visitors

By: Jacob Palme

In: Web4Health deliverables.

Download: http://web4health.info/en/answers/project-statistics.htm

Abstract: Statistics on the number of visitors, hits and FAQs in Web4Health.

Report of first promotion stage for Web4Health

By: Jacob Palme

Download: http://web4health.info/documentation/D-6-2-first-promotion.pdf

Abstract: In order to get visitors to our web site, we designed our web site in such a way, that search engines (like Google) and portals (like Yahoo) will recommend our site. Such techniques are known under the name Search Engine Optimisation (SEO). The most important way of doing this is to make our site good, containing a lot of useful and valuable content.

In addition to this, it is also possible to rewrite pages so as to be easier reachable through search engines. A central method of doing this is to select our best pages, test different search queries which people might use when they look for the information in this page, and find out which of these search queries are actually often used by search engine users. For each of our page, 1-3 such good query phrases were found. In order to get search engines to recommend our page, we then must but this phrase into the <TITLE> tag, the <H1> tag, text on links from other pages to this page. In total, each phrase must be repeated 2-3 times in the body of the page.

Search engines give a site value based on the number of external links to this site. Links from good web sites have more value than links from less good web sites. Therefore, we wrote e- mail to the managers of many good web sites and asked them to provide a link to our site. In return, we made links to their site from our site.

It is important not to try to cheat the search engine by improper methods. However, the goal of our site is to give good information in the mental health area. Just like we optimize our own natural-language question-answering system to give the right answer to questions, the methods describe above means that we “optimize” Google to give the right answers to those questions where we have a good answer. Thus, SEO, as used by us, is within our goals of giving good information to people who ask for this information.

First report of stepwise refinement experience in Web4Health

By: Jacob Palme

In: Web4Health deliverables.

Download: http://web4health.info/documentation/D4-2-stepwise-refinement.pdf
Abstract: This deliverable describes the ongoing process of analyzing the special interests and demands of our webpage visitors in the
first 3 month of the public service. We use a stepwise refinement approach to review and adapt our existing content.

KOM2002 Groupware Use in Web4Health

By: Jacob Palme

In: Web4Health deliverables.

Download: http://web4health.info/documentation/KOM2002-groupware.pdf

Abstract: The KOM2002 Groupware is a software system to assist a group of experts in different countries to develop multi-lingual informational FAQs (answers to Frequently Asked Questions). Functions of this software are:

  • Storage of a large set of informational FAQs.
  • Each informational FAQ can have a number of attributes, selected freely for each user group.
  • Each informational FAQ can be provided in multiple languages.
  • A forum discussion can be associated with each informational FAQ.
  • Experts can easily modify the informational FAQs.
  • To avoid problems if two experts are simultaneously updating the same FAQ, warnings are provided when a second experts tries to edit a FAQ in a certain language, which another expert started editing within the last 24 hours.
  • Experts get regular e-mail notifications, informing them of what happens in the groupware, such as new discussion items, new FAQs, new translations, etc.

This document is a user instruction for using KOM2002 with the special document format to be used in the KOM2002 EU project for producing medical informational FAQs. This document is not a general instruction for using the groupware for other sets of FAQs, and it is not a managerial instruction for setting up and managing a data base using KOM2002.

Computer-based Psychological Counseling on the Web: an Empirical Study of Web4health

By: Andrea Andrenucci and Minna Forsell
In: World Conference on E-Learning in Corp., Govt., Health., & Higher Ed. 2004(1), 221-224.
Abstract: In this paper, we describe an empirical study of Web4health, a Question-Answering system created as a part of a groupware for psychological counseling on the Web. A group of twenty-two test users, 12 patients and 10 persons who have never had any contact with psychotherapy, tested the site submitting questions in natural language about psychological problems. Since our goal was to evaluate Web4health from a user perspective, we chose to apply qualitative research methods based on in-depth interviews and user observation in order to collect data. The results collected provide indications about how users experience computer-based counseling on the Web and how the online content should be presented.
Download: http://dl.aace.org/16399

Documents 2003

The Representative System for Electronic Democracy

By: Torgny Tholerus and Jacob Palme

Download: http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/society/representant/the-representant-system.html

Abstract: The representative system for electronic democracy combines the best from both a parliamentary system and direct popular voting. On every decision, citizens can decide whether to vote themselves, or let their elected representative vote for them. This system will give people more influence on decisions without requiring them to personally study each issue.

A Triple Helix of Learning Processes How to Cultivate Among Distance-Education Learners (In Swedish)

Swedish title: Inlärningsprocesser i en trippelspiral - Hur man kan odla lärande, kommunikation och samarbete bland distanslärande personer

In: Ph. D. Thesis at Stockholm University

Abstract: This work focuses on collaborative learning and how it can be applied and supported in distance education. Previous work indicates that distance learners experience more loneliness, technical problems and lack of stimulation than face-to-face learners do. Collaboration with peers may improve the feeling of connectedness and engagement. However, collaborative learning is not the answer to all problems in distance education--and it creates new problems. The present work explores problems, opportunities and processes when collaborative learning is introduced in distance education--and suggests solutions.

Related research on distance education and computer-supported collaborative learning is reviewed and related to own research. The different roles of information and communication technology in these areas are described.

Six own research papers are reviewed and integrated. Three of them explore university courses on computer use in society. Learners interacted mainly through a forum system, i.e. a system for text-based, asynchronous electronic conferences and discussions. The special character of forum communication had an impact on communication and collaboration processes. One paper summarizes these results and deduces a first list of tips to teachers and systems designers, aiming to reduce problems and take advantage of collaborativelearning opportunities.

One paper, a report to the Swedish School Board, provides an overview of research on distance education, with recommendations for use in secondary schools.

To get a broader picture of distance-education learners and their special situation and interests, a study was coducted in Australia. Most of the learners were secondary-school students, living far away from towns. Communication was normally restricted to mail, radio and telephone. Opportunities for collaboration between peers were rare, and correspondence traditions and the lack of technological infra-structure were delaying changes. However, a development towards more collaborative learning had started.

Empirical data were gathered ethnographically in natural course settings. Results were analysed using ‘activity theory’ as a framework.
The main contribution of this work is a description on how three groups of learning processes develop and interact: (a) of content, (b) of communication, and (c) of collaboration. They form the spiralling model of a “Triple Helix”. Finally, detailed advice is given as checklists to organisations, teachers, learners and system designers.

Adapting Hypermedia for Psychological Counselling

By: Andrea Andrenucci
In: Poster Proceedings of the 14th ACM Conference on Hypertext, Nottingham, UK, August 2003.
Abstract: This paper describes an ongoing research oriented to find an approach to adapt the answers retrieved in an Information Retrieval Hypermedia system to users characteristics such as interests, problems and needs. The software utilized in this research is an automated question answering system that answers queries about psychological or life problems and is designed to be used on the WWW. The approach reported in this paper uses explicit and implicit acquisition of information through a dialogue with the user in order to create a user model that should be compared with the knowledge base of the system.

Natural Language Question Answering System Classification Manual

By: Jacob Palme and Eriks Sneiders
Abstract: The natural-language question-answering system used in Web4health is based on manually specifying templates for each FAQ (Frequently Asked Question).The templates are matched against the questions asked by users.The success of the question-answering thus depends a lot on the quality of these templates.This manual describes the format and method of producing templates.
Pages: 23.
Download in PDF format from: http://web4health.info/documentation/D2-2b-classification.pdf

Documents 2002

Internet application layer protocols and standards

By:Jacob Palme
Abstract: Tutorial on protocol basics, coding methods, e-mail protocols.
Pages: 200.
Download from: http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/abook/

Groupware for distributed content production, Use in Web4Health

By: Jacob Palme
Abstract: The KOM2002 groupware allows a distributed group of authors in different countries and language regions to collaborate on the development of a joint set of informational pages in multiple languages.
Pages: 23.
Download in PDF format from: http://web4health.info/documentation/KOM2002-groupware.pdf

How to collaborate and learn at a distance. Formats, problems, and possibilities

By: Eva Fåhræus
In: Axelsson, L-E., Bodin, K., Norberg, R., Persson, T. & Svensson, I. (Red.) (2002). folkbildning.net - an anthology about "folkbildning" and flexible learning. Stockholm: Folkbildningsrådet and Distum.

Collaboration and learner initiative at distance. How Do High-School Learners Master Distance Technology?

By: Eva Fåhræus
In: Proceedings of the Information Technology in Regional Areas Conference 2002 - Using IT: Making it Happen. Rockhampton, Queensland Australia, August 2002.

Collaborative learning through electronic conferencing - How to activate learners

By: Eva Fåhræus
In: AADES International Conference 2002, Adelaide , South Australia, 24 - 27 September, 2002.

Distansundervisning – mode eller möjlighet för ungdomsgymnasiet? En
forskningsöversikt (Distance Education, Fashion or Facility in Upper-Secondary Schools? A Research Overview)

By: Eva Fåhræus
In: Forskning i fokus, nr. 1. Stockholm: Skolverket.

Documents 2001

Making Networks Support Collaborative Learning

By: Eva Fåhræus
Presented at:
The International Conference on Learning and Teaching On-line - Practices, Challenges and Prospects, in Guangzhou, China, January, 2001.

Collaborative Learning through Forum Systems -
Problems and Opportunities

By: Eva Fåhræus
Published in:
In Proceedings of Computer Support for Collaborative Learning Conference, Maastricht, Netherlands, March, 2001.

Flow in the Interaction - a Model for Assessment of the Interactivity in Web-based Courses

By: Eva Fåhræus
Published in:
Proceedings of the 20th World Conference on Open Learning and Distance Education, Dusseldorf, Germany, April, 2001.

A Students‚ View on the Learning Process in Asynchronous e-Discussions -  A Preliminary Analysis

By: Eva Fåhræus
Published in:
Proceedings of the 10th conference of the European Distance Education Network (EDEN) Learning Without Limits - Developing the Next Generation of Education in Stockholm, June, 2001.

How to co-operate in distance education (In Swedish, Swedish title: Hur samarbeta på distans för att lära?)

By: Eva Fåhræus
Published in:
Axelsson, L-E., Bodin, K., Norberg, R., Persson, T. & Svensson, I. (Red.) (2001). Folkbildning.net - en antologi om folkbildningen och det flexibla lärandet. Stockholm: Folkbildningsrådet och Distum.

Documents 2000

Computer mediated communication through Bulletin Board Systems (BBS:s)

In order to establish to what extent computer mediated bulletin board systems, BBS:s, are being used by teenagers for different purposes, a survey was conducted. All 9:th grade pupils (normally 14 to 15 years of age) in the community of Stockholm, Sweden were asked to participate through their schools, generating 3574 test subjects and a 78% response rate. The results show that 18,75% of the participants (30,66% of the males and 6,66% of the females) in the study had used BBS systems.

By: Mats Wiklund
Abstract at: http://www.dsv.su.se/~matsw/licabstract.html.

Internet Application Layer Protocols -- Basic Concepts

An easy-to-read introduction the basic concepts of Internet application layer protocols: Process, Client, Host, Server, Protocols, Layering Model, Layers below the application layer, Ports and Applications, Telnet: A Simple Application, Architectures, Chaining, Referral or Multicasting, Symmetric and Asymmetric Protocols, Transfer of Responsibility, Identification, Transactions and Sessions, Turn-around Time, Pipelining and Windowing, Terminating a Connection, Intermediaries, Names and Addresses, The Domain Name System, Top-level domains, The old versus new problem, Standards Terminology, OSI versus the Internet.

By: Jacob Palme
Size: 50 pages
URL: http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/abook/basics-chapter.pdf

Internet Application Layer Protocols -- Coding Methods

An overview of coding methods used in Internet application layer protocols: Why is coding important, Character sets, Textual and binary encoding, Augmented Backus-Naur Form, ABNF, Abstract Syntax Notation, ASN., HTML and CSS, Extensible Markup Language, XML.

By: Jacob Palme
Size: 131 pages
URL: http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/abook/coding.pdf

A Personal History of CMC

Based on more than 30 years of experience in using and designing computer systems, this paper summarizes a somewhat controversial view on how software should be designed to be liked by its users. Basic to this view is that it is dangerous to use computers to ensure adherence to rules, laws and regulations. When rules are interpreted by humans, the humans are capable of interpreting the rules with discretion and understand that quite often, the rule should not be adhered to 100 % in every case. Computers are not so good at making such judgements.

Published in: Honorary publication dedicated to Yvonne Waern, 2000.

By: Jacob Palme
Size: 8 pages
In PDF format:

Support for Language Translation in E-Mail and Netnews

This memo specifies extensions to e-mail and netnews standards, to allow for the submission of translation of messages, not only at initial submission time, but also at later time, and made by other translators than the original author of the message. three new e- mail/netnews header fields are proposed, "Content-Translation-Of, "Content-Translator" and "Translation-Request" and a new content-type "Multipart/translations" is specified.

By: Jacob Palme
Size: 18 pages
In plain text format:
in PDF format:

in HTML format:

Select Protocol Specifications

The SELECT rating system is a system for storing and using ratings on Internet resources. Ratings can be provided by ordinary readers of the resource, by expert readers, by computer linguistic analysis of the documents, or by observation of user behaviour. This specification describes the protocols needed between different program modules to provide the SELECT service. Protocols are specified to find out how documents are rated, to send ratings, to register a rater, to search for rated resources, to evaluate a list of resources (get their ratings), to find new items with good ratings, and to exchange ratings data between SELECT servers.

By: Jacob Palme, Michel Claude Johan Kaers Christopher Lueg David Mason, Andras Micsik, Massimo Vanocchi and Richard Wheeler.
Size: 77 pages
In PDF format: http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/select/sel-protocol-spec.pdf
In Word format: http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/select/sel-protocol-spec.doc

Functional Specifications of Senior Online

This functional specification of SeniorOnline describes a groupware service and a portal service specifically aimed at elderly Internet users.

These services were developed, because they were requested by users. The groupware service will allow users to exchange information in groups, and will include an e-mail functionality. The portal will provide users with directories of web pages, forums, groupware servers and users, and will provide more focussed high-quality search results than usual web search engines. Only quality selected web resources will be included.

By: Jacob Palme, Roland Alton-Scheidl, Susanne Bremer, Marina Giardino, Margit Lutowsky, John Nissen and Rainer Riedel.
In PDF format:
In Word format: http://cmc.dsv.su.se/sol/DelD51.doc

Client-Side Proxies

Client-side proxy servers is a useful technique for finding and adapting information according to user preferences. This master's thesis describes how they work, how they can be used, and makes an overview of a number of existing client-side proxies.

By: Tomas Viberg
Size: 37 pages
URL in HTML format: http://cmc.dsv.su.se/select/csp/   Rating
URL in PDF format: http://cmc.dsv.su.se/select/csp/thesis.pdf   Rating

Ethnographic Methods in the Study of Electronic Communities

The origins of ethnography lie in social anthropology. In recent times, however, ethnographic methods have found an increasing role within IT design and development (Anderson, 1994). In such cases, an ethnographic researcher is, in an integrated way, engaged in describing, planning and participating in a process of change, rather than merely observing and describing an existing setting.

By: Sirkku Männikkö and Rob Procter
Date: January 2000
URL: http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/reports/ethno.html   Rating

Growing Knowledge: How to Support Collaborative Learning e-Discussions in Forum Systems

By: Eva Fåhræus.
Published in:
Licentiate Thesis. Dept. of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University/KTH, Report No. 00-005.
URL: http://www.dsv.su.se/~evafaahr/lic/index.html

Student Interaction Stimulates Learning beyond Grading in Asynchronous Electronic Discussions

By: Eva Fåhræus.
Published in:
Dept. of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University/KTH, Report No. 00-008.

Making Electrons Support Collaborative Learning

By: Eva Fåhræus.
Published in:
Presented at the Conference Innovations in Higher Education, Helsinki, 2000.

Documents 1999

Internet, Usenet News, and child pornographic film clips

In order to establish if a newsgroup within the internet conference system Usenet News that is used to distribute child pornography is accesible through news servers operated by a company that provides access for anyone to their news servers for a monthly fee, an account with such a company was opened. Out of the 36 movies 9, or 25%, consisted of child pornography, including oral sex. The ages of the children roughly varies from 4 to 11 years of age (estimates by the author), and the length of each of the 9 movie clips was up to 6 minutes.

By Mats Wiklund
URL: http://www.dsv.su.se/~matsw/survey3_fulltext.html

How to Cope with too much E-mail

People and organisations are getting more and more e-mail, sometimes so much that this becomes a problem for them. This paper discusses the cause of this problem and some ways of coping with it. The examples in this paper are from the Eudora 4 Macintosh user interface, but similar facilities exist in many other mail programs.

By: Jacob Palme
Date: September 1999
URL: http://cmc.dsv.su.se/select/coping-with-too-much-email/   Rating

Collaborative Filtering of Web and News (EU SELECT Project)

Collaborative filtering systems are software systems to help Internet users find the most valuable and interesting information, aided by other people's ratings. Some collaborative filtering systems will even tailor the filtering to your particular needs, interests, competence and values, by using rating values produced by other people with similar views as yours. This paper gives a short overview of existing such tools with links to further information, and then discusses some issues in their design and presents an architecture for a rating and filtering system. This architecture is defined such that modules implemented by different people at different places can interwork.

By: Jacob Palme
Date: May 1999
Published: TERENA Networking Conference, Lund, June 1999
URL: http://cmc.dsv.su.se/select/rating-choices.html   Rating

Decision Support by E-mail

Research on the use of e-mail for decisions shows that e-mail has some important advantages, compared to face-to-face meetings. But e-mail also has particular problems for use in decision-making, probably caused by the lack of body language, facial expressions and voice inflection. These problems show themselves in too longwinded discussions and difficulty to reach a decision. This paper discusses these problems, and proposes that new computer-supported tools might alleviate the problems. Examples of such tools are methods to find out the opinion in a group, continuously during its deliberations, and methods to structure the message flow with links between messages like "Solution-To", "Argument-Against", etc. These links would be an extension to the existing links "In-Reply-To", "References" and "Supersedes" giving more flexibility in structuring the information flow.

By: Jacob Palme
Date: May 1999
Published: TERENA Networking Conference, Lund, June 1999
URL: http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/ietf/JPMADS.pdf   Rating (Adobe Acrobat format)
URL: http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/ietf/JPMADS.html   Rating (HTML format)

Internet is a way to meet

In Swedish, Swedish title: Internet är att umgås.

By: Sirkku Männikkö
In: Mus och människa, om IT som kulturellt fenomen. Nordiska Museets förlag, p

Gott-IT-land, Report 3.

On use of IT in a rural Swedish area, the Gotland island. In Swedish.

By: Kerstin Löwenhielm, Sirkku Männikkö and Birgitta Sjögrund.
Date: August 1999.

Tutoring group learning at a distance

By: Eva Fåhræus.

Published in: J. D. Price, J. Willis, D. A, Willis, M. Jost, & S. Boger-Mehall (Eds.), Proceedings of the So-ciety for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Con-ference (SITE'99, March, 1999), San Antonio, Texas.

Discussions from a Situated-learning Perspective

By: Eva Fåhræus.

Published in: C. Abbott, (Ed.), Proceedings of the Conference on Telecommunications for Education and Training (TET'99, June, 1999), Gjøvik, Norway. (Pp. 164-169).


Documents 1998

The Future of Electronic Mail

This paper tries to make predictions about the future of e-mail, based on a questionnaire distributed to e-mail experts and on the experience of the author. The paper goes through all major e-mail functionality which can be expected to arrive in the next five years. In particular, the paper predicts that future e-mail software will provide better facilities for organizing and searching large mail data bases, that HTML-formatted messages will become common and support for work flow and group communication will be better.

By: Jacob Palme
Date: January 1998
URL: http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/ietf/the-future-of-e-mail.html   Rating

Talking back to the WWW

While e-mail and netnews support interaction between users, typical WWW communication is uni-directional -- from the web page creator to the reader, but with no facility for talkback from the reader to the creator or between readers. This paper discusses how talkback can be added to the WWW and presents how this will be implemented in the KOM 2000 system.

By: Jacob Palme
Date: May 1999
Published: TERENA Networking Conference, Lund, June 1999
URL: http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/talkback/talking-back.html   Rating

Gott-IT-land, Report 2.

On use of IT in a rural Swedish area, the Gotland island. In Swedish.

By: Kerstin Löwenhielm, Sirkku Männikkö and Birgitta Sjögrund.
Date: August 1998.

"Are You Still There?!"
About Mediated Communication In Teaching And Learning

In this paper we examine computer mediated communication in the specific situation of teaching and learning at the distance. Mediation brings about particular dimensions to communication. Implications of this to teaching and learning are discussed in the light of empirical material gathered during a six month long distance course arranged by the department of computer and systems sciences, Stockholm University, for Swedish high school teachers in the pedagogical use of the Internet.

By: Sirkku Männikkö and Eva R Fåhræus
Date: August 1998
Published in: Proceedings of the Teleteaching conference within the XV. IFIP World Computer Congress -98.

Now you can send Web pages in E-mail

Now, you can send neat, formatted messages with pictures, diagrams and forms in e-mail. Use the MHTML standard for sending HTML in e-mail, supported by major mailers. Bonus value: In addition to sending HTML-formatted messages, you can also use the MHTML format to save a web page with all its pictures, applets, frames, etc., in one single file in MHTML format.This is great for archiving web content.

By: Jacob Palme
Date: 1998
URL: http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/ietf/web-email.html   Rating

Searching for Women's Community

Swedish abstract: Den informations- och kommunikationsteknologi (IKT) som utvecklas och sprider sig i samhället får oss att tänka och definiera om våra uppfattningar om begreppet rum. Gränserna för vårt rum sprängs och vi är på väg att skapa och utforska nya rum i den s k cyberrymden.

Detta paper beskriver elektroniska kvinnliga rum i den svenska delen av cyberrymden utifrån empiriskt material samlat under två års tid. Vi kan bevittna en frambrytande kvinnlig kultur på Internet som är könsmedveten och strävar efter att stärka och befrämja kvinnors färdigheter i nätverksskapandet. Socialt kapital med vänskapsrelationer, stöd och råd, information och marknadsföring som innehåll produceras av kvinnor i samspel med varandra i det nya, elektroniska rummet.

Language: Swedish
By: Sirkku Männikö
Date: April 1998.
Swedish title:
I sökan efter kvinnlig gemenskap - Om det frambrytande, nya, kvinnliga rummet i cyberrymden.
Published in: Working paper at the SIR symposium on Space, Gender and Societal Change, 1-2 April 1998 Östersund.

Internet is a Way of Social Intercourse

Swedish abstract: Svenskspråkiga virtuella gemenskaper står i fokus för dels en historisk beskrivning och dels en kulturanalys.

Language: Swedish
By: Sirkku Männikö
Date: May 1998
Published in: Arbetspaper vid seminariet Kulturvetenskapliga IT-studier, vid Nordiska museet.

Information filtering

Better ways at finding the most valuable information on the Internet, and to avoid trash, would very much enhance the value of the network. This paper makes an overview of methods and problems in this area, including social filtering, where people help each other with filtering objects on the net.

By: Jacob Palme
Date: May 1998
Published in: Proceedings of the ITS'98 conference   Rating
In HTML format: http://cmc.dsv.su.se/select/information-filtering.html   Rating (18 pages)
In PDF format: http://cmc.dsv.su.se/select/information-filtering.pdf   Rating (10 pages)

Now you can send web-pages in e-mail

An introduction to the advantages and possibillities of the MHTML standard for sending HTML in e-mail.

By: Jacob Palme
Date: March 1998
URL: http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/ietf/web-email.html  Rating

Learning via Conference Systems

By: Sirkku Männikkö and Eva Fåhræus.

Published in: Collaborate '98, National Advisory Committee on Computing Qualifications,
11th Annual Conferense, Auckland, 1998.

Documents 1997

Interweave School and Society (In Swedish: Väv ihop skolan med världen)

Final report from an experiment with a forum-based course for teachers.

By: Sirkku Männikkö and Eva Fåhræus.
URL (In Swedish): http://www.dsv.su.se/~evafaahr/itped_utvardering.html

Gott-IT-land. Lägesrapport (In Swedish)

By: Kerstin Löwenhielm, Sirkku Männikkö and Birgitta Sjögrund.
Date: August 1997.

The Web and Distance Learning: What is appropriate and what is not

By: Lawhead, P.B., Alpert, E., Bland, C.G., Carswell, L., Cizmar, D., DeWitt, J., Dumitru, M.,Fahraeus, E., Scott, K.
Date: June 1997.
Published in: Working groups reports and supplemental proceedings, ITiCSE 97, Uppsala. Report of the ITiCSE´97 Working Group on CMC in Collabortive Educational Settings.

By: Ursula Wolz, Jacob Palme, Penny Anderson, Zhi Chen, James Dunne, Göran Karlsson, Atika Laribi, Sirkku Männikkö, Robert Spielvogel, Henry Walker
Date: June 1997
Published in: Working Group Reports and Supplemental Proceedings, Association for Computer Machinery as the ITiCSE'97 Working Group Reports and Supplemental Proceedings 1997 ACM 1-58113-012-0/97/0010, $3.50.
Abstract and introduction in HTML format:
http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/distance-education/iticse-cmc-in-education.html   Rating

Entering Cyberspace as an Ethnologist

By: Sirkku Männikkö
Date: October 1997
Published in: Telematics Program Conference 1997, Papers and Presentations. KFB 1997-485.

User Influence on Software Design may give less Good Software

Of course, user influence on software design is useful and good. This document is in no way intended to say that user influence on software design is bad or should not be used. One should however be aware, that user influence on software design can have not only positive but also negative effects on the quality of the software. Here is an explanation why.

By: Jacob Palme
Date: October 1997
URL (in HTML format): http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/s1/control-power-home.html   Rating

Can Computers Decide what is Right and Wrong?

It is dangerous to use computers to ensure adherence to rules, laws and regulations. When rules are interpreted by humans, the humans are capable of interpreting the rules with discretion and understand that quite often, the rule should not be adhered to 100 % in special cases. Computers are not so good at making such judgements. Because of this, it can be unsuitable to put to much of rule-checking into software.

By: Jacob Palme
Date: June 1997
URL (in HTML format): http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/reports/right-wrong.html
  Rating URL (In Acrobat format): http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/reports/right-wrong.pdf   Rating

Spin a Web Between the School and the World

A distance course about the Internet was provided for Swedish high school teachers. Course design was based on constructivist ideas about teaching and learning. The Internet was used for communication during the course. In the qualitative evaluation of the course we are discussing our findings about communication strategies, group interaction, and knowledge-creating processes. Participants developed various strategies for communication and learning where they combined asynchronous and synchronous forms. Through collaborative learning they have created new ways of applying the Internet in their teaching. We also found that computer conferencing systems need to be developed in order to support teaching in a more efficient manner.

By: Sirkku Männikö and Eva Fåhræus
Date: June 1997
Published in: Proceedings of INET97, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, June 1997.
URL: http://www.dsv.su.se/~evafaahr/INET97.html   Rating

Creating Places for Teaching and Learning

The use of technical media for communication is altering the spatial and temporal dimensions of social life so that boundaries characteristic of face-to-face interaction can be ignored. The use of technical media enables individuals to reorder the spatial and temporal features of social organisation, and to use these reordered features as a means of pursuing their objectives. The emergence of the new communication technology has resulted in the uncoupling of space and time: spatial distanciation no longer requires temporal distanciation. We can now communicate in spite of great distances without significant temporal delays. Another important development following from the uncoupling of space and time is the despatialized simultaneity. Earlier, "the same time" presupposed "the same place". The development of the new communication media allows us to experience events as simultaneous despite the fact that they occur in places that are spatially remote. Implications of this development in the area of teaching and learning are discussed in this paper through an example of a distance course designed for teachers in the use of Internet in senior high school education.

By: Sirkku Männikö and Eva Fåhræus
Date: August 1997
Ref: Proceedings of ICTE'97, Oslo, Norway.
URL: http://www.dsv.su.se/~evafaahr/CP.html

Common Internet Message Headers

This memo contains a table of commonly occurring headers in headings of e-mail messages. The document compiles information from other RFCs such as RFC 822, RFC 1036, RFC 1123, RFC 1327, RFC 1496, RFC 1521, RFC 1766, RFC 1806, RFC 1864 and RFC 1911. A few commonly occurring headers which are not defined in RFCs are also included. For each header, the memo gives a short description and a reference to the RFC in which the header is defined.

By: Jacob Palme
Date: February 1997
Ref: Internet RFC 2076
URL of the official RFC: ftp://sunic.sunet.se/rfc/rfc2076.txt   Rating
Latest revised version (more up-to-date than the official RFC): http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/ietf/mail-headers/   Rating


MIME E-mail Encapsulation of Aggregate Documents, such as HTML (MHTML)

Although HTML [RFC 1866   Rating ] was designed within the context of MIME, more than the specification of HTML as defined in RFC 1866 is needed for two electronic mail user agents to be able to interoperate using HTML as a document format. These issues include the naming of objects that are normally referred to by URIs, and the means of aggregating objects that go together. This document describes a set of guidelines that will allow conforming mail user agents to be able to send, deliver and display these objects, such as HTML objects, that can contain links represented by URIs. In order to be able to handle inter-linked objects, the document uses the MIME type multipart/related and specifies the MIME content-headers "Content Location" and "Content-Base".

By: Jacob Palme and Alex Hopmann
Date: March 1997
Ref:IETF standard RFC 2110
URL:ftp://sunic.sunet.se/rfc/rfc2110.txt   Rating (19 pages)
Recent status:http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/ietf/mhtml.html   Rating

Intelligent Information Filtering

By: Fredrik Kilander, Eva Fåhræus and Jacob Palme
Date: January 1997
Format: HTML
Language: English
URL: http://www.dsv.su.se/~fk/if_Doc/juni96/ifrpt.ps.Z   Rating

This is the final report from the research project on intelligent filtering which was funded by the SAMT joint task force of NUTEK and RALF. The report describes the filtering issues, the approach taken in the research project and some conclusions. One important conclusion is that it might be more satisfying for users with a filtering system which aids the users in rapidly filtering information manually, than in a system which performs the filtering automatically.

PEFNA The Private Filtering News Agent

By: Fredrik Kilander, Eva Fåhræus and Jacob Palme
Date: February 1997
Format: Compressed Postscript
Language: English
URL: http://www.dsv.su.se/~fk/if_Doc/juni96/ifrpt.ps.Z   Rating

PEFNA is a Usenet News reader with filtering facilities. It is especially designed to support experiments and tests with different filtering methods. Filtering is done by a separate batch program which should be executed off-line and prepare data for reading using the news reader.

Intelligent Filtering on Usenet News - a User Study

By: Eva Fåhræus
Date: February 1997
Format: Microsoft Word
Language: English
URL: not yet available on the Internet

Three users read texts in large Usenet News newsgroups using a news reader with special support for information filtering. Users could put messages into baskets. Their actions were recorded by the system, and a filtering algorithm tried to perform similar filtering on a new set of netnews articles. The users were interviewed on their experience of using the filtering newsreader. One important conclusion is that it might be more satisfying for users with a filtering system which aids the users in rapidly filtering information manually, than in a system which performs the filtering automatically.

Risk@Internet. An experiment in using an e-mail mailing list as a forum for discussion and information dissemination on the subject of risks.

By: Sirkku Männikö
Date: January 1997
Language: Swedish
URL: Not yet available on the Internet

An experiment was performed on the usability of e-mail mailing lists as a vehicle for distribution of information on the subject of risk management and risk research. Some experts in this area were asked to participate, together with people who are important for distribution knowledge in society, such as journalists, teachers, politicians, authors, etc. The experience was not entirely successful. It was not easy to get experts who were willing to answer question on this issue with non-experts. The experts wanted an expert-only mailing list. At the end of the test period, some mailing-list saboteurs joined the list, trying to take over the discussions to discuss their pet issues. The conclusion is that to succeed with this kind of usage, you should pay the experts to participate, and you should have control on whom to invite to avoid mailing-list saboteaurs which will occur in lists where anyone is allowed to participate.

Choices in the implementation of rating

By: Jacob Palme
Date: January 1997
Format: HTML
Language: English
URL: http://cmc.dsv.su.se/select/rating-choices.html   Rating

This paper discusses some options for the design of a rating (=social filtering) system for internet objects. An architecture for a rating and filtering system is also presented.This architecture is designed to allow different groups to develop different modules in the rating and filtering system.

Documents 1996

Internet, Usenet News and the distribution of pictures of nude children

In order to establish if the internet conference system Usenet News is used to distribute either child pornography or more innocent pictures of children in the nude all postings in four news groups dealing with pornographic pictures were examined during a 7-day period. During this time 5651 postings were made in the four news groups, out of which 807 were pictures. Among them were eight pictures of 8-13 year old (estimates by the author) children in the nude. None of the pictures show intercourse or other explicit sexual activity.

By Mats Wiklund
URL: http://www.dsv.su.se/~matsw/survey1_fulltext.html

Internet, Usenet News och alt.sex.pedophilia

In order to establish if child pornography is being distributed via the Internet conference system Usenet News through news groups not easily accessible to all users, a connection to Usenet News was established through a news server providing access to all existing news groups with world-wide distribution (not necesarily the case with all servers). During this time 417 postings were made, out of which 28 were pictures. Seventeen of the pictures show children either in sexually expicit poses or actually performing sexual activities, including oral sex and intercourse.

By Mats Wiklund
URL: http://www.dsv.su.se/~matsw/survey2_fulltext.html

About Computer Mediated Teaching and Learning. Some Swedish Experiences.

By: Sirkku Männikö
Language: English
Published: Proceedings of the ICTE96, New Orleans, USA, 1996.
URL: Not yet available on the Internet

An experiment in interactive teaching using a non-simultaneous computer conferencing system

By: Sirkku Männikö
Date: April 1996
Pages: 28
Format: HTML
Language: Swedish (abbreviated English translation available)
URL: http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/reports/8895.html   Rating

In the spring of 1995, the department of computer and systems sciences gave a course on the topic "Humans, computers and society". The teaching methods differed very much from traditional methods. Most of the course activity was students reporting from books and papers and discussing with each other in a non-simultaneous computer conferencing system. Instead of traditional exams, students were passed and given marks based on their activity in the system. Results of the study are that the teaching results were as good as in traditional teaching. The study also showed that women and students which did not have Swedish or another Nordic language as their native language succeeded a little better than men and Nordic students. The students liked the freedom to plan their studies and the exchange of information, but complained over too much to read and too little support from the teachers.

Use of computer conferencing to teach a course on people and computers

Author: Jacob Palme and Sirkku Männikö
Date: June 1997
Pages: 8
Format: HTML
Language: English (a longer version in Swedish also available, see previous entry above)
URL: http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/distance-education/ITICSE-Report-88.html   Rating
This paper was presented at the ACM Conference on Integrating Technology into Computer Science Education   Rating , Uppsala, June 1997.

A course with the name "Humans, society and computers" was given using a non-simultaneous computer conferencing system (BBS system). The course had a rather novel approach to teaching this subject. This paper reports on the experience from giving this course.

Linking conferences to web pages

by: Jacob Palme
Date: June 1996
Pages: 21
Format:Adobe Acrobat PDF format
URL: http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/linking-conf-web.paper.pdf   Rating

The World Wide Web provides good methods for making information available for retrieval, but does not provide methods for letting people discuss and comment on the information provided. It would be useful to be able to have non-simultaneous discussions on the contents of normal web pages, using non-simultaneous computer conferencing techniques (like Usenet News newsgroups). Several methods to do this is discussed in this paper, for example adding "Start discussion" and "Discussion exists" buttons to the ordinary web pages, where these buttons would lead to a computer-conferencing discussion of the web page. Some of the options described here will be implemented in the Web4Groups project, a research project financed by the telematics program of the European Union (EU). An appendix presents the naming principles used in Web4Groups   Rating .

Quality in IT Usage in Schools

by: Eva Fåhræus
Date: February 1996
URL: Not yet available on the Internet

Documents 1995

Identification of Text Genre and Context - Non-Content Information Retrieval

by: Jussi Karlgren
Date: September 1995
Format: set of linked HTML documents
URL: http://www.sics.se/~jussi/distrnontopicir/distrnontopicir.html   Rating

There is useful information in the content, form, and usage of a document. This knowledge can at leasty partly be extracted semi-automatically, and should be accessible by simple learning algorithms.

A Brief Comparison of News Filtering Software

by: Fredrik Kilander
Date: June 1995
Pages: 13
Format: Zip-compressed postscript, 49 kb
URL:http://www.dsv.su.se/~fk/if_Doc/Comparison.ps.Z   Rating

A 13-page paper comparing six filtering systems based on material located on the WWW.

Propoerties of Electronic Texts for Classification Purposes as Suggested by Users

by: Fredrik Kilander
Date: January 1996
Pages: 7
Format: Compressed postscript
URL: http://www.dsv.su.se/~fk/F25/essays.ps.Z   Rating

A summary of 54 student essays on what they perceive to be important properties in email, with some notes on Usenet News and WWW.

User Adjustability - More flexible computer conferencing systems?

By: Tarja Lintunen
Date: March 1995
Pages: 12
Format: HTML
Publication: in
URL: http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/user-extensibility.html   Rating

How can computer conferencing systems be designed in order to allow users more flexibility in adjusting the system to different specific tasks?

Message Classification and Filtering

By: Fredrik Kilander
Date: January 1995
Pages: 19
Format: Zip-compressed PostScript, 70 Kbytes
URL:http://www.dsv.su.se/~fk/if_Doc/aifiltr.ps.Z   Rating

A general discussion of the filtering problem in the context of computer mediated conference systems and the Internet message format.

Comparisons of the Cosine Measure and Sub-String Indexing on Usenet News Articles

By: Fredrik Kilander
Date: January 1995
Pages: 9
Format: Zip-compressed PostScript, 52 Kbytes
URL:http://www.dsv.su.se/~fk/if_Doc/T.ps.Z   Rating

Two document similarity measures are compared on a sample of Usenet News messages.

Intelligent Filtering; Based on Keywords Only?

By: Ann Lantz and Fredrik Kilander
Date: January 1995
Pages: 2
Format: Zip-compressed PostScript, 28 Kbytes
URL:http://www.dsv.su.se/~fk/if_Doc/chi95.ps.Z   Rating

Short paper on the scope and aim of the IntFilter project.

Electronic Mail

By: Jacob Palme
Date: January 1995
Pages: 267
Format: HTML
Publication: Artech House Publishers, London and Boston.
URL: http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/e-mail-book/e-mail-book.html   Rating

A general overview of e-mail both from social and technical aspects. Discusses social effects, cost-benefit, functions and techniques, X.400 and Internet standards, market, ethical and legal aspects and research in the messaging area.

Documents 1994

GHOSTS - A Filter for Information Streams

By: O. Palmgren, J. Karlgren, D. Pargman
Date: October 1994
Pages: 2
Format: Zip-compressed PostScript, 13 Kbytes
URL:http://www.dsv.su.se/~fk/if_Doc/JPfilter-filer/GhostsInfoStreams.ps.Z   Rating

Describes an early prototype filtering systems. Interesting is that its filtering rules do not have to apply in a certain order, in which the next filtering rule is applied to the result of the previous filtering rule.

How to Create a Humane Information Flow

By: D. Pargman, J. Karlgren, A. Lantz, O. Palmgren, K. Höök.
Date: October 1994
Pages: 2
Format: Zip-compressed PostScript, 13 Kbytes
URL:http://www.dsv.su.se/~fk/if_Doc/JPfilter-filer/HumaneInfoFlow.ps.Z   Rating

An introduction to the aims and starting points for the research project on intelligent message filtering at DSV.

Creating a Humane information flow.

By: Daniel Pargman
Date: October 1994.
Pages: 58
Publication: Master's thesis at Uppsala University

A study of filtering systems, their methods and principles and usage, and suggestions for the design of a new filtering system.

Special functions in CMC systems to support distance education (in Swedish!)

Swedish title: Speciella funktioner i CMC-system för att stödja distansundervisning
By: Tarja Lintunen
Date: September 1994
Pages: 6
Format: HTML
URL: http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/tarja-speciella-funkt.html   Rating

A summary of special software facilities in CMC systems to support distance education, based on a questionnaire sents to a number of teachers with interest in this area.

User requirements for harmonizing Internet mail and Usenet News

By: Jacob Palme
Date: October 1994
Pages: 2
Format: HTML
URL: http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/mailnews.userreq.html   Rating

A list of possible functions to look at when trying to harmonize standards for Internet mail and Usenet News.

Standards for asynchronous group communication

An overview of ongoing work on developing group communication standards in ISO.

By: Jacob Palme
Date: September 1993
Pages: 7
Publication: Computer Communications, vol. 16, no. 9, September 1993 pp 532-538

Use of computer conferencing for distance education (In Swedish!)

An introductory overview of how to use computer conferencing for distance education and a discussion of the need for special support for distance education in computer conferencing software.

Swedish title: Användning av datorstödda konferenssystem för distansundervisning
By: Jacob Palme
Date: May 1994
Pages: 4
Format: HTML
Publication: in
URL: http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/kon-for-dist.html   Rating

Newsgroup clustering

A study of the possibillity of using social filtering to advice a Usenet News user of interesting newsgroups by looking at clustering of the newsgroups for other users.

By: Jussi Karlgren
Date: March 1994
Pages: 15
Format: Postscript
URL: http://www.sics.se/libabstracts.html#T94/04   Rating

Standards work in ISO/ITU and IETF

By: Jacob Palme
Date: March 1994
Pages: 7
Format: HTML
URL: http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/standards-research.html#appendix1   Rating

A comparison of the methods for developing standards used by ISO/ITU and by IETF, based on the author's experience in participating in standards work in both organizations.

The glass box user model for filtering

Discusses what information about a system should be visible to the user by viewing the system as a "black box within a glass box", as applied in the message filtering area.

By: J. Karlgren, K. Höök, A. Lantz, J. Palme, D. Pargman
Date: February 1994
Pages: 12
Format: Zip-compressed PostScript, 50 Kbytes, figure 4 is missing (it is missing from the original document as well, apparently is was to be pasted into the printed copy)
URL:http://www.dsv.su.se/~fk/if_Doc/JPfilter-filer/Glassbox1.1.ps.Z   Rating

Information technology
Message Handling Systems
Part 13: Asynchronous computer conferencing

A draft text for a standard for asynchronous computer conferencing, based on an extension of the X.400 messaging standard. This document was progressed to CD status by ISO in November 1994, but ISO has not done any further work on it after that, and it will probably never become a full ISO standard.

By: Jacob Palme (editor)
Date: February 1994, revised November 1994
Pages: 207
Format: RTF format. Note: Diagrams will only be printed correctly if you print them with Microsoft Word on a Macintosh computer.
Publication: ISO/IEC Committee Document (CD) in ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 18/WG 4 N 2668
URL: gopher://mars.dsv.su.se:70/00/iso-mess/gc/x.acc.rtf

Text genre recognition using discriminant analysis

The idea is to complement standard information retrieval metrics which are based on a shallow semantic analysis with a genre analysis and a usage or text ecology analysis.

By: Jussi Karlgren
Date: 1994
Publication: International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Kyoto, 1994
URL: http://www.sics.se/~jussi/cmplglixcol.ps   Rating

Issues when designing filters in messaging systems

An overview of functionality issues to be considered when designing filtering systems for messaging systems. Also discusses how the architecture of the filtering systems depends on functionality design decisions.

By: J. Palme, J. Karlgren, D. Pargman
Date: January 1994
Pages: 14
Format: Zip-compressed PostScript, 56 Kbytes
Publication: Accepted for publication in Computer Communications
URL:http://www.dsv.su.se/~fk/if_Doc/JPfilter-filer/IssuesDesFilter.ps.Z   Rating

Word-statistical categorization of texts for filtering of electronic messages

Messages can be categorized into different types, such as Conference-System-Related, Announcement, Personal, Policy, Problem, RequestForComments and Comment, by looking at the occurrence of words and phrases in the messages. This categorization can be used for filtering.

Swedish title: Ordstatistisk kategorisering av texter för filtrering av elektroniska meddelanden
By: I. Tzikas, F. P. Hussain
Date: ????
Pages: ????
Format: Zip-compressed PostScript 128 Kbytes.
Publication: in
URL: http://www.dsv.su.se/~fk/if_Doc/JPfilter-filer/OrdStatUppsats.ps.Z   Rating

How do Experienced Users of the System Usenet News Select their Information?

A study on a number of experiences users of Usenet News, to find out how they select information and criteria they use in manually filtering articlesmessages. One conclusion is that users regard their need for filtering more as a tool to find the most interesting items and to improve the quality of the items read, than as a tool for alleviating information overload.

By: Ann Lantz
Date: Not yet available on the Internet

Useful criterias for intelligent filtering?

By: Ann Lantz
Date: Not yet available on the Internet

This paper reports on a questionnaire answered by Usenet News users concerning their information selection methods and filtering needs. It was found that most users use Usenet News mainly to keep up to date. They mainly use subject line and genre for filtering. Length of contribution and amount of quoted text was also impossible. Nearly all the subjects felt a need for filtering software.

Documents 1993 and earlier

For 1993 and earlier, the list is not complete, it only contains a selection of documents.

Legal and Ethical Aspects of Computer-Mediated Communication

By: Jacob Palme
Date: June 1993
Pages: 5
Format: Plain ASCII text
Publication: The Arachnet Electronic Journal on Virtual Culture, ISSN 1068-5723, June 30, 1993, Volume 1, Issue 4.
URL: ftp://byrd.mu.wvnet.edu/pub/ejvc/PALME.V1N4   Rating

Why do people use Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC)

By: Jacob Palme
Date: 1993, revised July 1995
Pages: 2
Format: HTML
URL: http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/why-people-use-cmc.html   Rating

A discussion of the social and psychological factors which cause people to choose to use CMC systems. Such systems are claimed to support status, self-esteem, confidence, competence, communion, comradeship, give inspiration and be an outlet for generosity.

Computer conferencing functions and standards

By: Jacob Palme
Date: October 1992
Pages: 10
Format: HTML
Publication: Collaborative Learning through computer conferencing (ed: Anthony Kaye), Heidelberg, Springer-Verlag, 1992
URL: http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/four-papers.html#RTFToC114   Rating

Discusses how standards for Computer Conferencing can be developed and describe the status of work in this area within ISO and CCITT.

Use of computer conferencing systems to do research on them

Discusses how computer conferencing software and data bases can be used to perform research on social behavior in the systems. Examples of research methodologies which might be useful for research on the Internet are given.

By: Jacob Palme
Date: February 1992
Pages: 5
Format: Adobe Acrobat
URL: http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/use-conf-research.pdf   Rating

SuperKOM - Design considerations for a distributed, highly structured computer conferencing system

The SuperKOM computer conferencing system was designed to incorporate many ideas from older messaging and con-fe-rence systems in a simple and general-purpose internal struc-ture. This paper describes the design goals, and then descri-bes how the internal structure of SuperKOM was designed to meet these goals. In particular, SuperKOM provides a distri-buted, highly structured conference system and integrates electronic mail, computer conferencing and text data bases in one system.

By: Jacob Palme and Torgny Tholerus
Date: October 1992
Pages: 20
Published in: Computer Communications, vol. 15, no. 8, october 1992 pp 509-518
Format: PDF (Adobe Acrobat)
URL: http://cmc.dsv.su.se/w4g/superkom-design-cons.pdf   Rating

ISO user requirements on computer-supported voting and polling

These user requirements were developed by an ISO/CCITT working group as a start for work on developing standards for computer-supported voting. This work task was, however, not accepted by ISO (because of lack of interest among ISO member organisations), so ISO never did anything more than develop this user requirements document. But the user requirement can still be useful for anyone who is to start development or research in this area.

Edited by: Jacob Palme
Date: October 1991
Pages: 7
Format: HTML
URL: http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/iso/iso-voting-user-reqs.html   Rating

History of the COM computer conferencing system

The COM computer conferencing system was developed and used by a group of people at the Stockholm University Computing Center in Stockholm in the years 1976-1990. This paper, written by one of the people behind the COM system, tells of how the system came to be developed and describes important occurences in the history of the system.

By: Jacob Palme
Date: 1990
Format: HTML
URL in HTML format: http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/s1/history-of-KOM.html  

You have 134 Unread Mail - Do You Want To Read Them Now?

Electronic mail system can, if used by many people, cause severe information overload problems. The cause of this problem is that it is so easy to send a message to a large number of people, and that systems are often designed to give the sender too much control of the communication process, and the receiver too little control. The solution to the problem must be too increase the control of the receiver. To do this, structure Is needed on the set of messages. Electronic mail systems thus need to be more data base oriented, like some computer conference systems already are.

By: Jacob Palme
Date: 1984
Format: HTML
URL in HTML format: http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/s1/134/you-have-134-unread-mail.html
URL in PDF format: http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/s1/134/you-have-134-unread-mail.pdf

Some conferences from the COM computerized conferencing system 1978-1989

Here are excerpts from some conferences in the COM computerized conferencing system 1978-1989, mostly in Swedish.

Date: 1978-1989
Format: HTML
URL in HTML format: http//dsv.su.se/jpalme/qzkom/

Experience with the use of the COM computerized conferencing system

Reports from a number of different studies on the usage of the KOM computer conferencing system in the beginning of the 1980-s. Among the conclusions found are that most communication is new communication, not a replacement for old communication, that young people and non-bosses get an advantage in KOM usage while old people and bosses had an advantage in face-to-face meetings, that users generally felt that KOM increase equality and participation.

By: Jacob Palme
Date: December 1981, revised August 1984
Pages: 56
Format: RTF format. Note: Diagrams will only be printed correctly if you print them with Microsoft Word on a Macintosh computer
URL in RTF format: http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/reports/c10166.rtf   Rating
URL in Adobe Acrobat format: http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/reports/c10166.pdf   Rating

Table from the above paper: Statistics of which action a user of a non-simultaneous computer conference system performs most frequently, can be used in designing conference system user interfaces by understanding user needs.

URL: http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/reports/kom-command-frequencies.html   Rating

Lotus Notes Invented in the 1970s

This paper was written in 1978 and published at the international conference Teleinformatics in Paris in 1979. The paper is also available in the book published based on this conference. The paper is of interest, because it describes (in chapter 3-4) a computer system very similar to Lotus Notes and to so-called work flow applications. The paper thus shows that the ideas in Lotus Notes existed already long before Lotus Notes was invented, many of the ideas go even further back to the Emisari system invented by Murray Turoff in 1969.

By: Jacob Palme
Date: May 1979
Pages: 10
URL: http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/reports/cc-based-mis.html   Rating

The General Public Information System

This paper was written by me in the Nordic magazine Data No. 3, 1974. It phrophesises much of what Internet has become today. The dreams were with us also 23 years ago, even if the dreams would not be realized until many years later.

Original abstract of the 1974 paper:

Conventional computer application systems will often cause inflexibility and difficulty for the individuals and organizations using them to adjust to new needs and environmental situations. This paper proposes a way of designing computer application systems as an extension of the idea in teleconferencing systems. The concept "conference" is extended to the concept "activity" which can be a conference, a person, a computer program, an inquiry, a set of travel accounts, a set of records in a data base system etc. Each activity consists of messages or notices which can contain both ordinary text and information structured into fields with typed values. This way of designing computer systems may give more flexibility and may make it easier to adjust the system to new needs and environments.

by: Jacob Palme
Date: 1974
Pages: 13
URL (HTML version): http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/reports/general.html   Rating

Interactive Software for Humans

by: Jacob Palme
Date: 1975
Pages: 31
Format:HTML and PDF (Adobe Acrobat)
URL (HTML version): http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/reports/interactive-software.html   Rating
URL (Acrobat version): http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/reports/interactive-software.pdf   Rating

Which are the human needs that are affected by the use of computers? How will computers affect the humans using them? What kinds of communications between humans will the computers cause? How can computer systems be designed to better satisfy human needs? What design principles should be used for such systems? What kinds of human-machine interaction will better satisfy human needs?